Palestine was a term that was used until 1948 to describe the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Throughout history, the empires of Assyria, Babylon, Rome, Byzantine, and Ottoman ruled over Palestine at the same time. After World War I, Palestine was annexed by the United Kingdom under the auspices of 1922 from the League of Nations. The modern history of Palestine begins with the overthrow of British rule, the partition of Palestine and the occupation of Israel, and the ensuing Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The Partition of Palestine
In 1947, the United Nations (U.N.) adopted the Palestinian Divisions, entitled “Resolution 181 (II) of the National Council of the United Nations of Palestine.” The decision marked Britain’s planned abolition of the British Mandate for Palestine and recommended that Palestine be divided into two provinces, one Jewish and the other Arab, with the area of Jerusalem and Bethlehem protected and controlled by the United Nations.
The resolution included a detailed description of the proposed boundaries of each proposed state. The decision included plans for an economic union between the proposed countries and the protection of religious and minority rights. The decision called for the withdrawal of British troops and the dissolution of the Authority in August 1948 and the establishment of new independent states in October 1948.
The social conditions of present-day Palestine, particularly those west of the Jordan River, have been greatly affected by the dramatic political and military changes that have brought this small region into the world. In the early 21st century, the Jews of Israel formed about half the population west of the Jordan, while the Palestinian Arabs – Muslims, Christians, and Druze – and other small groups looked after everyone else. The number of Jews is increasingly being made up of people born in Israel itself, although millions of immigrants have arrived since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.
The Arab people came from the Arabs who lived in the area at the time of authorization and, most of them cases, hundreds of years before that time. Most Jews and Arabs are now in the cities. According to the Zionists, Judaism is the basis of religious and nationalistic identity. Palestinian activists often insist that their shared identity as Arabs transcends the religious diversity of their society. Both Arabs, Muslims, make up about 18 percent of the population of Israel, and Arabs, about 2 percent, describe themselves for the first time as Arabs.
The majority of Arabs living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as the growing number of Arab Palestinians living outside the region (mostly in neighboring countries such as Lebanon) strongly oppose Israeli rule and fear the defeat of the West Bank and Gaza by Israel. Many Israeli residents of Israel supported the move, assuming that the land was right for Israel. In 2005 Arab concerns eased slightly as Israel completed its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and gave control of the area to the Palestinian people, but the Israeli population in the West Bank almost doubled between 2005 and 2019. Both Zionists and Arab Palestinian activists have traveled at various times since the 19th century in search of a suitable location west of the Jordan River.
The conflict between the two groups and their claims has been a major cause of many Arab-Israeli conflicts and ongoing problems in the region. Some members of each faction made major and special claims for total control of the area, while others were determined to find a peaceful solution.
First Arab-Israeli War (1948)
The Jewish leadership accepted the plan of segregation but the Arab leaders rejected it. The Arab League threatened to take military action to prevent the division of Palestine and to secure the land rights of the Palestinian Arab people. One day before the end of British rule, the Israelites declared their independence from within the borders of the Jewish State set out in the Partition Plan. The Arab states have declared war on the newly formed State of Israel, which began the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
After the war, which the Palestinians called the Catastrophe, the 1949 Armistice Treaty established divisions between the military: Israel controlled some territories built by the Arab world under the Partition System, Transjordan controlled the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and Egypt it controlled Gaza. Strip.
The Six Day War
The Six-Day War was fought between June 5-10, 1967, when Israel successfully captured and controlled the Gaza Strip and the Seninsins Peninsula in Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights of Syria.
The UN Security Council has adopted resolution 242, a “world peace” formula, which called for Israel to withdraw from “occupied territories” in 1967 and for “the abolition of all claims or states of belligerency.” Resolution 242 recognizes the right of “all countries to coexist peacefully within the confines of a secure and secure environment free of threats or acts of force.”
The 1973 War
The Six-Day War was fought between June 5-10, 1967, when Israel successfully captured and controlled the Gaza Strip and the Seninsins Peninsula in Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights of Syria. The UN Security Council has adopted a resolution 242, a “world peace” formula, which called for Israel to withdraw from “occupied territories” in 1967 and for “the abolition of all claims or states of belligerency.” Resolution 242 recognizes the right of “all countries to coexist peacefully within the confines of a secure and secure environment free of threats or acts of force.”
Rise of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
In 1974, the Arab League adopted the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole representative of the Palestinian people and relinquished its role as a representative of the West Bank. The PLO received a state of alert at the UN General Assembly that same year.
In 1988, the Palestinian National Council of the PLO ratified the Palestinian Independence Declaration in Algiers, Tunisia. The declaration proclaims “The State of the Palestinian State in our Palestinian Territory and its capital Jerusalem,” although it does not specify specific boundaries, and affirms UN Resolution 181 upholding the rights of Palestinian and Palestinian people. The declaration is in line with the PLO’s call for international dialogue on the basis of UN Resolution 242.
The Intifada (1987 to 1993)
Conditions in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, including Jerusalem, after more than 20 years of military rule, repression and land occupation, contributed to the Palestinian intifada in December 1987. Between 1987 and 1993, more than a thousand Palestinians were killed. Thousands were injured, detained, imprisoned in Israel or deported to Palestinian territories.
The peace process
In 1993, the Oslo Accords were signed, which is the first direct, face-to-face agreement between Israel and the PLO and is intended to provide a framework for future relations between the two parties. The treaties form the Palestinian National Assembly (PNA) responsible for the administration of the territory under its jurisdiction. The Accords also demanded the withdrawal of Israeli troops from parts of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
The implementation of the Oslo Accords led to the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Prime Minister and signatories to the Oslo Accords, in November 1995. Since 1995, several peace conferences and proposals, including Camp David Summit (2000), Taba Summit (2001) ), Road Map for Peace (2002), and the Arab Peace Initiative (2002 and 2007), have tried to come up with a solution, but to no avail.